# Mahesh Subramaniya

##### @msubramaniya | +MaheshSubramaniya

Math is all about symbolic calculation and there are only handful of programming languages to do the symbolic math. But when need arises, you can write your own symbolic math processing engine easily and I will show you how you can use Prolog to do it and integrate into any java application.

Prolog a well known language in the academia areas of computer science such as Artificial Intelligence and related studies. Prolog is a logic programming and pattern matching language. It is a first-order programming model and helps you to build code in a mathematical or inference based approach. Prolog is a simple language to learn and yet powerful to use ( just for fun, try to convert the rules listed in here into Java code ). It is pretty easy to get start with it in matter of hours.

This article shows you how to use Prolog to write Differential and Integral calculus rules. I’ve coded few modules for some of my bachelors projects such as MinT and jLogics.

If you are new to prolog, I would recommend to get some basics of Prolog before diving in here. Do not worry you are not learning anything weird like this.

In nutshell, just understand that

1. It can be used a Compiled or Interpreted language and works based on the pattern matching.
2. You start with simple facts & relations and extend those as rules.
3. Expressions are separated by COMMA(,) and the function is terminated by a DOT(.)
4. Just build the foundations correct and rest everything would fit ( just like the axioms in Math )
5. Prolog is good at backtracking. i.e if one of the input couldn’t derive to a ‘Truth’ value, it would try with nex set of values until it finds ‘Truth’.

Here is an example of backtracking. Prolog, will match for truth always and until it matches, it will backtrack and keep looking.

In this program, when you ask for good_menu_in(thai), it will find two matches restaurant4 and restaurant1 and then for each match, it will try to find the matching good() menu item. When it checks for restaurant4, it doesn’t match any good() item. So it will backtrack to restaurant1.

good(restaurant1,ginger_chicken)
good(restaurant1,fried_noodles)
good(restaurant2,chicken_curry)
good(restaurant2,kung_pao_chicken)

restaurant(thai,restaurant4)
restaurant(thai,restaurant1)
restaurant(chinese,restaurant2)
restaurant(indian,restaurant3)

> good_menu_in(thai)

when restaurant1() rule is executed, it would fetch restaurant4 and restaurant1. When it tries to match good(restaurant4), it wont find any, hence it will backtrack to good(restaurant1).

Result: ginger_chicken, fried_noodles

Here is another example

Now, let us get started.

## Differential rules

### Define the basic axioms

d( X, X, 1 ):- !.                  /* d(X) w.r.t. X is 1      */

d( C, X, 0 ):- atomic(C).          /* If C is a constant then */
/* d(C)/dX is 0            */

d( U+V, X, R ):-                 /* d(U+V)/dX = A+B where   */
d( U, X, A ),                   /* A = d(U)/dX and         */
d( V, X, B ),
R = A + B.

d( U-V, X, R ):-
d( U, X, A ),
d( V, X, B ),
R = A - B.

/* constant multiplied to variable d(C*X)/d(x) */
d( C*U, X, R ):-
atomic(C),
C \= X,
d( U, X, A ),
R = C * A,
!.

d( U*V, X, U*B+V*A ):-           /* d(U*V)/dX = B*U+A*V where */
d( U, X, A ),                 /* A = d(U)/dX and           */
d( V, X, B ).                 /* B = d(V)/dX               */

d( U/V, X, (A*V-B*U)/(V^2) ):- /* d(U/V)/dX = (A*V-B*U)/(V*V) */
d( U, X, A),                /* where A = d(U)/dX and       */
d( V, X, B).                /*       B = d(V)/dX           */

d( U^C, X, R ):-       /* d(U^C)/dX = C*A*U^(C-1)   */
atomic(C),                    /* where C is a number or    */
C\=X,
d( U, X, A ),
R = C * A * U ^ ( C - 1 ).

### Now little complex pattern.

As prolog is good at pattern matching, you can define rules with complex inputs. When you invoke d(sin(X)) or d(sin(sin(X))),it will match the rule. And then it will still track for d(X). In the first case it is just X and in 2nd case it is sin(X) and see if anything matches up.

d( sin(W), X, Z*cos(W) ):-       /* d(sin(W))/dX = Z*cos(W)   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

### List of basic trigonometric rules

d( sin(W), X, Z*cos(W) ):-       /* d(sin(W))/dX = Z*cos(W)   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( exp(W), X, Z*exp(W) ):-       /* d(exp(W))/dX = Z*exp(W)   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( log(W), X, Z/W ):-            /* d(log(W))/dX = Z/W        */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( cos(W), X, -(Z*sin(W)) ):-    /* d(cos(W))/dX = Z*sin(W)   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( tan(W), X, (Z*sec(W)^2) ):-    /* d(tan(W))/dX = Z*sec(W)^2   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( cot(W), X, -(Z*cosec(W)^2) ):-    /* d(cot(W))/dX = -Z*cosec(W)^2   */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( sec(W), X, (Z*sec(W)*tan(W)) ):-    /* d(sec(W))/dX = sec(W)*tan(W)  */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( cosec(W), X, -(Z*cosec(W)*cot(W)) ):-    /* d(cosec(W))/dX = -cosec(W)*cot(W)  */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arcsin(W), X, Z/sqrt(1-W^2) ):-    /* d(arcsin(W))/dX = Z/sqrt(1-W^2) */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arccos(W), X, -(Z/sqrt(1-W^2)) ):-    /* d(arccos(W))/dX = -(Z/sqrt(1-W^2) )*/
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arctan(W), X, Z/(1+W^2) ):-    /* d(arctan(W))/dX = Z/(1+W^2) */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arccot(W), X, -(Z/(1+W^2)) ):-    /* d(arccot(W))/dX = -(Z/(1+W^2)) */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arcsec(W), X, (Z/(W*sqrt(W^2-1))) ):-    /* d(arcsec(W))/dX = (Z/(W*sqrt(W^2-1))) */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

d( arccosec(W), X, -(Z/(W*sqrt(W^2-1))) ):-    /* d(arccosec(W))/dX = -(Z/(W*sqrt(W^2-1))) */
d( W, X, Z).                  /* where Z = d(W)/dX         */

Full Gist

## Integral rules

Similar to Differential, Integral rules are defined. Start with the basic axioms and expand.

int( 0 , X , 0).

int( C , X , C * X ):-
atomic(C),
C \= X,  !.

int( X , X , 0.5 * X^2 ):- !.

int( 1 / X , X , ln(X) ):- !.

int( C * X , X , C * R):-
atomic(C),
int(X , X , R).

int( X * C , X , R):-
atomic(C),
int(C * X , X , R).

int( U + V , X , A + B ):-
int( U , X , A ),
int( V , X , B ).

int( U - V , X , A - B):-
int( U , X , A ),
int( V , X , B ).

int( U * V , X , U * R):-
atomic(U),
U \= X,
int(V , X , R).

int( A^X , X , A^X / ln(A) ):-
atomic(A),
A \= X,
!.

int( X^N , X , W1 * (X ^ W ) ):-
numeric(N),
W is N + 1,
W1 is 1 / W,
!.

int( X^N , X , (1 / (N + 1) ) * X ^ (N + 1) ):-
atomic(N),
!.

int( Z / X , X , Z * ln(X) ):-
atomic(Z),
Z \= X, !.

int( ( (A*X+B)^(-1) ) * X , X , inf ).

int( ( (A*X+B)^N ) * X , X , R):-
A1 = ( A*X + B) ^ ( N + 1),
A2 = ( A * ( N + 1 ) ),
R = A1 / A2.

int( sin(A*X+B) , X , -(1/A) * cos(A*X+B) ):- !.

int( cos(A*X+B) , X , (1/A) * sin(A*X+B) ):- !.

% integration of functions
int( sin(X) , X , -cos(X) ):- !.

int( cos(X) , X , sin(X) ):- !.

int( tan(X) , X , ln(cos(X)) ):- !.

int( sec(X) , X , ln( sec(X) + tan(X) ) ):- !.

int( cosec(X) , X , ln( cosec(X) - cot(X) ) ):-        !.

int( cot(X) , X , ln(sin(X)) ):- !.

int( exp(X) , X , exp(X) ):- !.

int( sec(X)^2 , X , tan(X) ):- !.

int( cosec(X)^2 , X , -cot(X) ):- !.

int( sec(X) * tan(X) , X , sec(X) ):- !.

int( cosec(X) * cot(X) , X , -cosec(X) ):- !.

int( 1/(A*X+B) , X , (1/A) * ln(A*X+B) ):- !.

int( exp(A*X+B) , X , (1/A) * exp(A*X+B) ):- !.

int( 1/sqrt(1-X^2) , X , arcsin(X) ):- !.

int( 1/sqrt(1+X^2) , X , arctan(X) ):- !.

int( 1/(X*sqrt(X^2-1)) , X , arcsec(X) ):- !.

int( 1/(X^2-A^2) , X , (1/2*A) * ln( (X-A) / (X+A) ) ):- !.

int( 1/(A^2-X^2) , X , (1/2*A) * ln( (A+X) / (A-X) ) ):- !.

int( 1/(X^2+A^2) , X , (1/A)* arctan(X/A) ):- !.

int( 1/sqrt(X^2-A^2) , X , ln( X+sqrt(X^2-A^2) ) ):- !.

int( 1/sqrt(A^2-X^2) , X , arcsin(X/A) ):- !.

int( 1/sqrt(A^2+X^2) , X , ln(X+sqrt(X^2+A^2)) ):- !.

% integration of functions
% using substitutions

int( sin(X)*cos(X), X , (1/2)*R):-
int(sin(2*X),X,R).

%if all fails

int(W,X,W).

Full Gist

Complete Source

## Java Integration

You can use GnuProlog for java to integrate your prolog program into your java app. Build the basic prolog engine using the gnuprolog APIs and you should be set.

Source

public class PrologEngine implements Serializable{

private HashMap variableResult;
private Environment env;
private Interpreter interpreter;
private WriteOptions wr_ops, options;
private Term goalTerm;
private Interpreter.Goal goal;
private String response, fileName, goalToExecute;
private TermWriter out;

public PrologEngine(String fileName) throws ParseException {

this.fileName = fileName;

/* initialize the prolog environment */
env = new Environment();
interpreter = env.createInterpreter();
env.runIntialization(interpreter);

/* show any error occured */
System.err.println(err);
}

rd_ops.operatorSet = env.getOperatorSet();

wr_ops = new WriteOptions();
wr_ops.operatorSet = env.getOperatorSet();

out = new TermWriter(new StringWriter());
}

public String getResult(String variable) throws Exception {
Object obj = variableResult.get(variable);

if (obj == null) {
throw new Exception("No Such Variable : " + variable);
}
else {
Term res = ( (Term) obj).dereference();
String output = out.toString(res);
return output;
}
}

public void exec(String goalToExecute) {
try {
this.goalToExecute = goalToExecute;

goal = interpreter.prepareGoal(goalTerm);

int flag = interpreter.execute(goal);

switch (flag) {
case PrologCode.SUCCESS:
case PrologCode.SUCCESS_LAST:
variableResult = (HashMap) rd_ops.variableNames;
break;
case PrologCode.FAIL:
throw new Exception("Cannot Execute for : " + goalToExecute);
}
}
catch (Exception e) {
System.err.println(e);
}
}
}

### jCalculus - java library

I’ve built this as part of my final year project and it is available over github for anyone to use.

Note: I’m not maintaining this anymore

### Usage

System.setProperty("jcalculus",path);

Integral d = new Integral();
String s = d.eval(expression,withRespectToVariable);

### Test code

import java.io.*;
import calculus.PrologEngine;
import javax.swing.*;
import calculus.*;

public class test {
static void dx(String goalToRun) throws Exception{
Derivative d = new Derivative();
String s = d.eval(goalToRun,"x");
System.out.println("Differential of " + goalToRun + " : " + s);
}

static void in(String goalToRun) throws Exception{
Integral d = new Integral();
String s = d.eval(goalToRun,"x");
System.out.println("Integral of " + goalToRun + " : " + s);
}

public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception {

String path ="path/to/script";
System.setProperty("jcalculus",path);

String goalToRun ="sin(x^3)";
dx(goalToRun);
in(goalToRun);
}
}

Source

Tagged under: prolog, java, math, integral calculus, differential calculus,